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The Antarctic

Antarctica is the coldest, windiest and driest continent on Earth, and covers approx. 14 million km2. This area is doubled during the winter, when the sea ice extends almost 1000 km from the coast.

The ice on the continent can tell us how the climate has evolved over several hundred thousand years, and Antarctica is therefore an important reference area for international environmental research.


All activities in and visits to Antarctica must be done in accordance with the regulations set forth in the document on safety protection of the environment in Antarctica.

Regulations summary


Norwegian stations

Environment and climate

So far, the Antarctic has been less affected by climate change than the Arctic, and the temperature in Antarctica is generally very low. Several factors contribute to this, including low solar radiation in winter, the ability to reflect solar radiation, the cooling effect of long wave radiation from the continent to the continent’s and height above sea level.


The Antarctic is home to unique and vulnerable wildlife. Vegetation is scarce and consists largely of algae, lichens and mosses. Only two blooming plants are found here.

More about wildlife